Bertrand Russell | philosophies, books & Facts

Bertrand Russell as a philosopher

Bertrand Russell

His full name is Bertrand Arthur William Russell. He was born on 18 May 1872 in UK. Bertrand Russell was a British photographer, was a logician, an essayist, and a social critic. He is best known for his work on philosophy in different subjects.

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He was also famous for evangelical atheism for his contribution towards technical philosophy as well. He was a 20th-century philosopher. He works on more than 15 subjects including mathematics, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and many more.

Early life and schooling

        Bertrand Russell was alone in his childhood. He lost his mother and his sister as well when he was two years old. After the period of 18-19 months, his father also passed away. He and his brother were cared for by their paternal grandfather but their grandfather also died when he was only six years. He gets an education from Trinity College, Cambridge, London School of Economics, and the University of Chicago.

Awards

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Bertrand Russell is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957. He was also awarded different other awards such as

  • De Morgan Medal(1932)
  • Sylvester Medal(1934)
  • Jerusalem Prize (1963).

Bertrand Russell famous books

Bertrand Russell wrote many books in his life. Some of his famous writings are:

These were some of the notable works of him which make him famous.

Bertrand Russell Famous Questions

He was talking about different philosophies and was asking different questions. He listed a set of different questions related to philosophical inquiries including religious as well. His famous questions were

  • “Do we survive death in any sense, and if so, do we survive for a time or for ever? “. This was related to religious believes.
  • “Has the universe a purpose? Or is it driven by blind necessity? Or is it a mere chaos and jumble, in which the natural laws that we think we find are only a fantasy generated by our own love of order?”
  • “Can mind dominate matter, or does matter completely dominate mind, or has each, perhaps, a certain limited independence?”

Bertrand Russell Famous Works on different philosophies

His most of the notable works on different philosophies are as follow:-

Philosophy of Language

Bertrand Russell works on language was that he works on how the language is used or how we use the language. He discusses language as a central part of philosophy. Because language is the mean of communication and he discusses how to use language to communicate. He with Moore argued that clarity of expression is virtue using language. More ever on his philosophy of language, he describes the

  • Nature of Language
  • Relation of languages with one another
  • Language users and the world.

The investigation may include inquiry into the nature of meaning, intentionally, to the references, the constitution of sentences, and many other things.

Ludwig Wittgenstein, Gilbert Ryle, J. L. Austin, and P. F. Strawson were the writers and philosophers that were influenced by him and has used the style and techniques originally developed by Bertrand Russell.

Philosophy of Science

Bertrand Russell thought that his approach and explanation of philosophy is better than that of other philosophical conclusions. He thought that science is the way of systematic process in which one went to the conclusion with proper method. The same will be used for a philosophy that one say some philosophical words, he or she must give a reason for it. He believed that both science and philosophy use is to understand reality not to make predictions and confuse the readers. But to make them understand with proof.

Philosophy of Religion

According to Russell, religion is real and largely harmful to people. He believed that religion and the religious outlook implement fears and dependency causes oppression, are responsible for the misery, and somehow is responsible for much of the wars in the world. He was saying that how a person can fit himself in one religion because some of the answers of some questions was that one will consider himself Atheist and by answering other, one was thought to be Agnostic.

During one of his speeches in 1949, he asks a question “Am I an atheist or Agnostic? “

After that, he explained his difficulty over religion.

Bertrand Russell answered that question that way that, he said that if I were answering that particular question to a purely philosophic audience then I will consider myself as an agnostic because there is a conclusive argument by which one can prove that there is not a God but if I’m speaking to an ordinary person than I may be an atheist because when I say that I cannot prove that there is not a God, I will also add that I cannot prove that there are not the Homeric gods.

Similarly, in Bertrand Russell biography, he said that I’m for sure and I am convinced that there is no life after death but I still believe in God’s existence.

But then at the age of 18, he went to Cambridge, when he was studying  Mil’s autobiography, where he has written a sentence which was actually the sentence his father taught him that “who made me? “Which immediately leads to the question “who made God? “

Philosophy of  Mathematics

Bertrand Russell has done great work in mathematics. He has written his first book in mathematics named Essay on the foundation of Geometry was published in 1897 which heavily influenced Immanuel Kant. He discusses logicism in detail in his writing The Principles of Mathematics in 1930.

What are the two problems of mankind according to Russell.
Why was Bertrand imprisoned?

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